History[ edit ] Early days at Stanford and earlier [ edit ] Sometime beforethe first pieces of what eventually would become ROS were beginning to come together at Stanford University.
In an attempt to remedy this situation, the two students set out to make a baseline system that would provide a starting place for others in academia to build upon. While seeking funding for further development,  Eric Berger and Keenan Wyrobek met Scott Hassanthe founder of Willow Garagea technology incubator which was working on an autonomous SUV and a solar autonomous boat.
Groups from more than twenty institutions made contributions to ROS, both the core software and the growing number of packages which worked with ROS to form a greater software ecosystem.
While Willow Garage had originally had other projects in progress, they were scrapped in favor of the Personal Robotics Program: focused on producing the PR2 as a research platform for academia and ROS as the open source robotics stack that would underlie both academic research and tech startups, much like the LAMP stack did for web-based startups.
In DecemberWillow Garage met the first of their three internal milestones: continuous navigation for the PR2 over a period of two days and a distance of pi python kereskedési bot a githubon.
Following this, Willow Garage achieved one of its longest held goals: giving away 10 PR2 robots to worthy academic institutions. This had long been a goal of the founders, as they felt that the PR2 could kick-start robotics research around the world.
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This chapter of ROS development would be finalized when Clearpath Robotics took over support responsibilities for the PR2 in early Meetups of ROS developers have been organized in a variety of countries,    a number of ROS books have been published,  and many educational programs initiated. ROS was designed with open-source in mind, intending that users would python kereskedési bot a githubon able to choose the configuration of tools and libraries which interacted with the core of ROS so that users could shift their software stacks to fit their robot and application area.
As such, there is very little which is actually core to ROS, beyond the general structure within which programs must exist and communicate.
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In one sense, ROS is the underlying plumbing behind nodes and message passing. However, in reality, ROS is that plumbing, a rich and mature set of tools, a wide-ranging set of robot-agnostic capabilities provided by packages, and a greater ecosystem of additions to ROS. Computation graph model[ edit ] ROS processes are represented as nodes in a graph structure, connected by edges called topics.
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A process called the ROS Master  makes all of this possible by registering nodes to itself, setting up node-to-node communication for topics, and controlling parameter server updates. Messages and service calls do not pass through the master, rather the master sets up peer-to-peer communication between all node processes after they register themselves with the master.
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This decentralized architecture lends itself well to robots, which often consist of a subset of networked computer hardware, and may communicate with off-board computers for heavy computation or commands.
Nodes[ edit ] A node represents a single process running the ROS graph. Every node has a name, which it registers with the ROS master before it can take any other actions. Multiple nodes with different names can exist under different namespacesor a node can be defined as anonymous, in which case it will randomly generate an additional identifier to add to its given name.
Nodes are at the center of ROS programming, as most ROS client code is in the form of a ROS node which takes actions based on information received from other nodes, sends information to other nodes, or sends and forex platform legjobb fórum requests for actions to and from other nodes.
Topics[ edit ] Topics are named buses over which nodes send and receive messages.
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To send messages to a topic, a node must publish to said topic, while to receive messages it must subscribe. The types of messages passed on a topic vary widely and can be user-defined.
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The content of these messages can be sensor data, motor control commands, state information, actuator commands, or anything else. Services[ edit ] A node may also advertise services.
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As such, services are often used for actions which have a defined beginning and end, such as capturing a single-frame image, rather than processing velocity commands to a wheel motor or odometer data from a wheel encoder. Nodes advertise services and call services from one another. Parameter server[ edit ] The parameter server  is a database shared between nodes which allows for communal access to static or semi-static information.
Data which does not change frequently and as such will be infrequently accessed, such as the distance between two fixed points in the environment, or the weight of the robot, are good candidates for storage in the parameter server. Tools[ edit ] Python kereskedési bot a githubon core functionality is augmented by a variety of tools which allow developers to visualize and record data, easily navigate the ROS package structures, and create scripts automating complex configuration and setup processes.
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The addition of these tools greatly increases the capabilities of systems using ROS by simplifying and providing solutions to a number of common robotics development problems. These tools are provided in packages like any other algorithm, but rather than providing implementations of hardware drivers or algorithms for various robotic tasks, these packages provide task and robot-agnostic tools which come with the core of most modern ROS installations.
It is a highly configurable tool, with many different types of visualizations and plugins.
Playing messages back from a bag is largely the same as having the original nodes which produced the data in the ROS computation graph, making bags a useful tool for recording data to be used in later development. These tools include rosls, roscd, and roscp, which replicate the functionalities of lscdand cp respectively.
The ROS versions of these tools allow users to use ros package names in place of the filepath where the package is located. The package also adds tab-completion to most ROS utilities, and includes rosed, which edits a given file with the chosen default text editor, as well rosrun, which runs executables in ROS packages.
Packages of note[ edit ] ROS contains many open source implementations of common robotics functionality and algorithms. These open source implementations are organized into "packages". Many packages are included as part of ROS distributions, while others may be developed by individuals and distributed through code sharing sites such as github.
Some packages of note include: Systems and tools[ edit ] actionlib  provides a standardized interface for interfacing with preemptable tasks. Mapping and localization[ edit ] gmapping  provides a wrapper for OpenSlam's Gmapping algorithm for simultaneous localization and mapping.